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Read e-book online A study of history, Volume 4, Breakdowns of Civilizations PDF

By Arnold Joseph Toynbee, Edward DeLos Myers

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107; for Lampsacus, VIII. 62, and Xenophon Hellcnica, I. 2, 15 for Phocaea, Xenophon, op. , I. 5, i x. Teos had been re-fortified, for reasons unrecorded, not by the Teians themselves but by the Athenians (Thucydides VIII. 16). T. 1 ; ; ; SAEVA NECESSITAS? ' As for Ephesus, she succeeded, between the generation of Lysimachus and the generation of Augustus, in extending her commercial hinterland so far eastwards into the interior of Asia Minor by the beginning of the Christian Era the products of Cappadocia were diverted from Sinope and shipped through Ephesus, 2 though Ephesus was at least twice as far as Sinope was from Mazaca.

1131-1200), though no doubt the ground for the reception of this idea in the Far Eastern World had been prepared by the familiarity of Far Eastern thought with the Smic conception of the perpetual alternation of Yin and Yang. (For Chu Hsi's theory of cycles see Hackmann, H. Chinesische Philosophic (Munich 1927, Rhemhardt), pp. ) . ; : IV 26 THE CAUSE OF THE BREAKDOWNS OF CIVILIZATIONS The same conception of recurrent alternating catastrophe and is applied to the Cosmos as a whole, instead of just to a portion of the OiVov/xcVrj, and is at the same time translated into theological terms, in another Platonic myth rehabilitation : 'This Universe is sometime conducted on its path and guided in its by God, while at other times, when the cycles of its appointed time have arrived at their term, it is released from control by God and proceeds to revolve in the opposite direction by itself (which it can do, because it is a living creature endowed with intelligence by the being who originally constructed it).

D. 1938 might conclude that the same dwarfing effect could be in a society produced by a withdrawal of opportunities for making and spending money in which the traditional idea of the good life was a regime, not of subsidized public serbut of remunerated labour. vice, private a In this computation the achievements of the Greek and Etruscan colonists are, of course, ignored, and only those of the native Italians are taken into account. 1 2 SAEVA NECESSITAS? 17 with its universal state in the shape of the Roman Empire.

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A study of history, Volume 4, Breakdowns of Civilizations by Arnold Joseph Toynbee, Edward DeLos Myers

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